Thursday, October 03, 2019

Vegetarianism Is Not A Religion - Official (Sort Of)

An Employment Tribunal in Norwich has found that a Claimant's vegetarianism was not the protected characteristic of religion or belief for the purposes of the Equality Act 2010 and that his Claim could therefore go no further.

Mr Conisbee was employed by the Respondent as a waiter and barman for about 5 months until he resigned following an incident at work when he had been told off for turning up in an unironed shirt.

As he had less than 2 years' service he could not bring an Unfair Dismissal Claim but he brought Claims alleging various incidents of harassment and discrimination which he said he had suffered because he was a vegetarian.

Non-religious philosophical beliefs qualify for protection under the Equality Act if certain criteria are met. These include that they are genuinely held and are not a mere opinion or viewpoint, must relate to a weighty and substantial aspect of human life and behaviour, attain a certain level of cogency and seriousness, be compatible with human dignity and not conflict with the fundamental rights of others.

It has previously been held in another case that belief in man-made climate change is capable of being a protected characteristic.

The Employment Judge had to decide whether the test was met in this case. 

The Judge decided that it was not.

There was no doubt about the genuineness of the Claimant's view that "the world would be a better place if animals were not killed for food", but it was an "opinion" rather than a "belief." (Although it is hard to see where one draws the line between the two.)

Vegetarianism was a "lifestyle choice" which could not be said to relate to a weighty and substantial aspect of human life and behaviour. (Some might question this - choice of food might be said to be a very substantial aspect of human life and behaviour.)

The belief did not have the necessary cogency and seriousness - there are all manner of reasons, from health considerations to simple personal taste, why people are vegetarians.

Interestingly the Judge drew a contrast between vegetarianism and veganism and suggested that the all-encompassing worldview and total rejection of any consumption or exploitation of animals which is involved in the latter would potentially fall on the other side of the dividing line.

This case is only a first instance decision and is not binding in other cases, and it could yet be appealed. Nevertheless it is an interesting one and contains plenty of scope for further argument.


Thursday, January 17, 2019

Telling a Barrister Not To Lie Is Not Biased!

The Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) has ruled that there was no appearance of bias justifying the overturning of an Employment Tribunal's decision when an Employment Judge told a Claimant's barrister during a Hearing that there was "no need to lie."

Mrs Balakumar was bringing an Employment Tribunal Claim. She was represented at the Hearing by 2 barristers.

Proceedings appear to have been quite difficult and a considerable amount of time was taken up dealing with applications, including one by the Claimant to admit additional late evidence. One of the lay members of the Tribunal subsequently expressed the view that one of the Claimant's barristers had given the appearance of being hostile and aggressive to the Tribunal.

Following the decision on the second application, Counsel in question asked for an adjournment to explain the decision to the Claimant. This appears to have been granted reluctantly and the adjournment then lasted for longer than had been granted. Following their return to the Tribunal, the barrister asked for a further adjournment in order to appeal the decision on the application to the EAT.

The Employment Judge might perhaps be forgiven at this point for beginning to lose patience. She apparently misheard (or misunderstood) what Counsel said and thought she was saying that the previous adjournment had been for the purposes of appealing. She said something to Counsel to the effect that there was "no need to lie" and that the Tribunal would not be offended if they were told that their decision was potentially subject to appeal.

Counsel took offence at what she consider to be being accused of being a liar. The Employment Judge apologised for mishearing Counsel.

The Claimant's application for an adjournment was refused, the case continued and the Claims failed.

Mrs Balakumar appealed to the EAT alleging that the Employment Judge's comments gave rise to an appearance of bias and that this meant that the Judgment could not stand.

The legal test is whether a fair minded and informed observer would consider that the Tribunal was biased.  The EAT concluded that it would not.

Whilst no weight can be attached to the Tribunal's own view that it was not biased, since bias can be unconscious and insidious,they accepted that the Judge had genuinely misheard Counsel, in the context of a Hearing at which there had been previous comments about difficulties in hearing what Counsel was saying because she was quietly spoken and the acoustics in the room were poor. 

The Judge had expressed herself in regrettable terms, but if she genuinely thought she had been misled by Counsel it was understandable that she would feel bound to say something about this.

The case was very different to a case in the Family courts which had been referred to in argument where a Judge had been held to have given the appearance of bias where he had made sarcastic remarks about "flying carpets" and "Turkish delight" in a case involving parties from the Middle East.

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

It's OK Not to Bake a Gay Cake - Supreme Court

In an eagerly-awaited Judgment today the Supreme Court has confirmed that a bakery in Northern Ireland did not discriminate on when they refused to accept an order to make a cake bearing a slogan supportive of gay marriage.

This is the so-called "Gay Cake" case.

Mr and Mrs McArthur are Christians. They run a chain of cake shops in Northern Ireland. Mr Lee is gay. He asked the bakery to provide him with a cake showing a picture of Sesame Street characters Bert and Ernie (who, ironically, have recently been the subject of debate over their sexuality, with the "official" pronouncement being that they do not have one) and headed "Support Gay Marriage."

As the McArthurs had a religious objection to gay marriage they refused to provide a cake containing a message with which they disagreed.

Mr Lee sued the bakery for unlawful discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation.

He succeeded at first instance and at the Court of Appeal.

The bakery appealed again to the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land.

The Supreme Court unanimously upheld the appeal. They found that Mr Lee was not refused the service because of either his actual or perceived sexual orientation but because of the bakery's objection to the message on the cake. The bakery had apparently fulfilled orders for Mr Lee in the past and also employed gay people so it was not his sexuality per se with which they had an issue.   

This was a case of direct discrimination, so the Claimant had to prove that it was his sexual orientation which was the cause of the discrimination. The outcome might conceivably have been different if the case could have been pursued as an indirect discrimination claim (where the bakery imposed a requirement which was more difficult for a gay person to comply with) or as a protected characteristic "related" discrimination.

The Court also found that the rights to freedom of religion and expression include the right not to be compelled to manifest a belief which one does not hold.

This was a very difficult case. Many of the cases on religious and sexual orientation discrimination revolve around the issue of whether the freedom to express your sexuality "trumps" the right to express disapproval of same sex relationships on religious grounds, or vice versa. This particular case also raises the very thorny issue as to whether Mr Lee's freedom of expression takes precedence over the bakers'. While it could be argued that Mr Lee could always take his business elsewhere, what if he lived in a conservative community where every baker took the same view? And is baking a cake for someone endorsing the views on it? On the other hand, whilst gay marriage is generally supported by the majority of society today, what if it had been a "Nazi cake"? 

Thursday, August 30, 2018

I Just Can't Switch Off!

The BBC reports today on a study by the University of the West of England which suggests that commuters so regularly use travel time for work emails that it should be classed as working time.

54% of commuters who were using wi-fi on the train journeys examined were sending work emails.

Modern technology and the ability to work remotely has blurred the boundaries as to what constitutes being at work.

There are a host of legal issues which could arise from this.

By law workers cannot generally be required to work more than 48 hours per week unless they have signed a waiver of their rights in this regard. If time spent dealing with work emails is counted as working time this could lead to breaches of this legislation.

The National Minimum Wage is calculated by reference to hourly rates, and if this time is included it could mean workers are being underpaid if it has not been taken into account when working out their pay.

If workers are expected to deal with work emails whilst on holiday, this could call into question whether this can properly be treated as holiday (which is technically a health and safety requirement) so as to satisfy the rules around minimum periods of annual leave.

Someone who is never able to "switch off" might also in certain circumstances have grounds for a work-related stress claim if it led to burnout.

A requirement to be "on call" 24 hours a day to deal with work emails could also give rise to indirect discrimination claims from people who have family or caring responsibilities outside of work if such a practice has a detrimental effect on their ability to fulfill those responsibilities or otherwise damages a satisfactory work/life balance.

There are also potential confidentiality and data protection implications around the use of technology on the move. More than one lawyer has been fined by the Information Commissioner for losing portable electronic equipment containing sensitive confidential information and a mental health doctor got into serious disciplinary hot water when she was allegedly overheard loudly discussing confidential case details on the telephone one the train.

Quite apart from the legal aspects of the situation, employers will want to reflect upon the impact that having no "down time" will have on employees' job satisfaction, energy levels and productivity. 

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Why Didn't You Tell Us?

The Supreme Court has held that an Employment Tribunal was correct to find that a Head Teacher could be fairly dismissed for failing to disclose to her employer the fact that she had a close relationship with a sex offender.

Ms Reilly was Head at a primary school in Sandwell. She had a close but non-sexual relationship with a Mr Selwood. They owned a house together. Mr Selwood lived there and  Ms Reilly slept there some nights, but they did not live together.

Mr Selwood was convicted of possessing child pornography, with images ranging from level 1 to level 4 on the scale of seriouness.

Ms Reilly did not inform her employer of the conviction. She stated that she had canvassed opinion from a range of professionals as to whether she was obliged to do so and that she had been informed that she did not have to, although there was a factual dispute as to the accuracy of what she said in this respect.

Sandwell Council learnt of Mr Selwood's conviction and Ms Reilly's close relationship with him and she was dismissed for gross misconduct due to her failure to disclose the relationship.

She brought a claim for Unfair Dismissal. Whilst this was upheld on technical grounds, it was found that there was a 90% chance of a fair dismissal and that she 100% contributed to her own dismissal. She therefore received no compensation and the finding effectively meant that in substance the dismissal was fair. 

She unsuccessfully appealed to the Employment Appeal Tribunal and from there to the Court of Appeal.

Her last chance was an appeal to the Supreme Court.

Giving the leading Judgment, Lord Wilson firstly reminded himself that the Supreme Court only hears appeals on points of law and the decision on the facts is one for the initial Tribunal. He then further reminded himself that in the case of dismissal for misconduct the "Burchell Test" applies - in other words the employer must have a genuine belief in guilt based on reasonable grounds and the procedure and the decision to dismiss must be "within the range of reasonable responses." In other words, the employer must simply have acted reasonably and not necessarily in the same way that the Court would have done.

He found that the test was clearly satisfied. The Council were reasonably entitled to take the view that the relationship engaged their safeguarding responsibilities and should have been disclosed to them. The allegations against Mr Selwood were serious. The fact that Ms Reilly still did not accept that her failure to disclose was wrong was reasonably treated as a relevant factor. It was potentially of relevance to consider that in certain circumstances it is not legally permitted for someone to work with children if they are living in the same household as someone who is disqualified for doing so.

The irony was that if the relationship had been disclosed it is highly unlikely that she would have been dismissed (or if she had been that this would have been a fair dismissal.) The most likely outcome would have been that measures would have been put in place to protect children (for example requiring her to ensure that he did not enter school premises or have access to information about pupils.)

Lady Hale in her Judgment commented that the case might have provided an opportunity to hear argument as to whether conduct which is not a breach of contract can justify a fair dismissal. As this has not been argued however, she did not express any view on this. It must however be highly likely that there are circumstances where it could.